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BUSINESS CONTINUITY

Could your business survive a temporary shutdown?

"Private sector preparedness is not a luxury; it is a cost of doing business in the post-9/11 world. It is ignored at a tremendous potential cost in lives, money and national security."

9/11 Commission Final Report, page 398

Nearly 75% of U.S. companies have experienced some sort of business interruption. Many never fully recover. In fact, 70% of all businesses that sustain any interruption are unable to survive the downtime even though properly insured.

A well planned Disaster Recovery solution insures that it is; business as usual for you and your customers, even when disaster strikes. Many businesses lease fully equipped office facilities ready to utilize on a temporary basis following a disaster. It becomes their alternate facility, and their business continues to operate seamlessly.

Everything your business requires should be in place at your DR site , including office space for your staff complete with computer workstations, data storage, state-of-the-art technology services, advanced telecommunications technology, conference rooms, executive offices and virtually every other tool your company needs to continue operations until your permanent location is ready for your return.

Call or email us to find a facility for you


Have Plans Ready To Cope With Unexpected Disaster
by; Morey Stettner

You plan for risk. But do you plan for extreme risk?

Analyzing business risk typically involves identifying vulnerabilities, plugging security holes and ensuring the enterprise can continue to run amid a disruption. Yet some disruptions blossom into full-blown disasters.

In the last decade, entrepreneurs have faced everything from a terrorist attack on U.S. soil to Hurricane Katrina to a global economic crisis. Leaders of companies that survived these shocks may not have predicted such events, but they planned for high-level emergencies.

Yet just as many adults avoid shopping for life insurance rather than confront their death and its consequences on their family's finances, entrepreneurs may prefer not to spend time dreaming up big disasters and planning how their company would respond. That's a mistake, warns Howard Kunreuther, a professor of decision sciences and public policy at University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School.

Planning for severe emergencies can actually save a business. It's precisely these types of low-probability but high-consequence events that do the most damage.

"It's not that anyone thinks these catastrophic events can't or won't happen," said Kunreuther, co-author of "Learning From Catastrophes." "They just think, 'These things won't happen on my watch.'"

Entrepreneurs tend to concentrate on short-term challenges. They may spend most of their time putting out fires or planning for three or six months in the future. And given their optimistic nature, business builders tend to underpredict the next potential crisis.

It's tempting to adopt the attitude, "If there's a low-enough probability of some massive natural or man-made disaster occurring, then I don't need to plan for it." This explains why some executives may be willing to prepare for more routine problems such as fires or spring floods while neglecting to plan for less-common but higher-magnitude disasters.

You can avoid this trap by analyzing worst-case scenarios with your employees, Kunreuther says. Hold a brainstorming meeting where you ask your team to identify what can happen at a local and national level that would seriously affect the firm's ability to function.

"Gather everyone to help you figure out mechanisms you can apply to think outside the box and prepare for catastrophe," Kunreuther said. Rather than just hire a consultant to draft a disaster recovery plan and then forget about it, stage drills with employees to practice emergency response.

At www.ready.gov you can obtain free business-preparedness resources and participate in the "Ready Business" mentoring initiative that includes guides on how to take practical, low-cost steps to protect your business. You can also review worksheets on how to protect inventory, improve data security and shop for proper insurance coverage.




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OUR SERVICE
New Breed  provides assistance comparing prices for VOICE, DATA  INTERNET or COLOCATION services in your area. We connect with every carrier who can service your area, and negotiate the lowest prices. There is no fee for this service.
 
PROCESS
We don’t provide quick gimmicky automated quotes providing retail prices. Our Agents work directly with the carriers to obtain the best prices and promos possible.
 
Our experienced telecom consultants & agents have deep relationships with all the major voice & data  carriers and can secure:
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  • Special promotions not available outside the independent agent channel.
EXPECTATIONS
Quotes When we receive your quote request form, an email response will be sent to you. This will have a tracking number and the email address of your dedicated account representative.  A service agent will either call or email if there are further questions. Prices will be sent to you usually within a day. For certain services, pricing may take 48 hours. Alternatively, please feel free to call 888 650 5353 and speak with an expert.

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  • An authorized agent will ensure that the carrier’s contract documents are complete and understood,
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  • Your account manager will coordinate with the carrier, vendor and customer through the provisioning process.
  • You'll be advised of all installation milestones.
  • Ongoing, your agent of record will continue to service your account to resolve support or billing issues for the life of the contract.
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The operator of the fastest, most advanced 4G network in the United States unveiled a suite of 10 consumer-oriented devices that will run on its 4G LTE network by the middle of this year.
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Colocation
 is moving or placing things together, sometimes implying a proper order. On the Internet, this term (usually spelled "Colocation") refers to the provisioning of space for a customer's communications equipment within the service provider's premises.

Colocation is sometimes provided by companies that specialize in Web site hosting, which is the business of housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more web sites. The owner of a Web site can place the site's servers on the premises of an Internet service provider (ISP). The customer places their servers in a data center (sometimes spelled datacenter) which is a centralized repository, either physical or virtual, for the storage, management, and dissemination of data and information relating to a specific interest. The National Climatic Data Center, for example, is a public data center that maintains the world's largest archive of weather information.

A private data center may exist within an organization's facilities or may be maintained as a specialized facility. Every organization has some sort of a data center, although it might be referred to as a server room or even a computer closet. In that sense, data center may be synonymous with network operations center (NOC), a restricted access area containing automated systems that constantly monitor server activity, Web traffic, and network performance.

A carrier hotel provides colocation on a massive scale, offering various services to customers ranging from modest-sized racks to dedicated rooms or groups of rooms. All the major Telecom carriers are collocated in carrier hotels. Some carrier hotels offer hardware and software installation, as well as other managed services. A carrier hotel may also house a meeting room where representatives of all the companies or guests served by the facility can exchange ideas and information.







PRIVATE LINES

A communications service between specific locations involving dedicated circuits, private switching arrangements, and/or predefined transmission paths, whether virtual or physical. Point-to Point Private Line Services come in a variety of options and configurations:

Metro Private Line Digital Service: Provides dedicated point-to-point or point-to-multipoint service. Aslo supports voice & data communications with digital handoffs. Services are offered in; DS0 / DS1 / DS3 with full bandwidth, channelized and hubbed services.

Metro Private Line SONET Service: Provides a dedicated, optical communications service with a SONET handoff; and delivers speeds of OC-3, OC-12, OC-48 and OC-192. Concatenated (full bandwidth) and channeled services are provided.

National Private Line Service: Provides dedicated service across continental U.S. with analog and/or digital handoffs and supports voice, data and video communications. Service is provided from DS0 up to OC-192 in various configurations, including point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, linear, protected paths, Concatenated and channelized services are provided.


ISDN PRI SERVICE

The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of internationally recognized communications standards and protocols that allow for the digital transmission of voice, video, and data over normal twisted-pair copper telephone lines.

ISDN offers speeds up to six times faster than plain old telephone service (POTS) and is regarded as an inexpensive and reliable network solution.

BENEFITS

ISDN PRI provides improved efficiency such as video conferencing, remote access, screen sharing and internet access giving customers the ability to collect, share and disseminate information across sites more efficiently thus resulting in increased productivity.

The most compelling feature is Calling Line ID that allows information about the calling party to be passed to the called number.

•    Flexibility of call-by-call service greatly increases trunking efficiency.
•    Eliminated cost of individual dedicated circuits.
•    Increased call handling efficiency associated with calling line identification.
•    Back-up configuration provides added protection and communications reliability.
•    Clear digital transmission of voice and data communications.
•    Rapid call set-up.
•    Ability to provision bandwidth on demand - with compatible CPE.
•    Enhanced security for dial up connecting with call number configuration.
•    Restricted number acceptance
•    Advanced call routing and call handling features.
•    Widely available service as it operates on the same PSTN that telephones do.
•    Standards based product offering.
•    Lines can be added easily & cost effectively.
•    Channels within lines can be dynamically allocated to the devices that need them most giving customers more flexibility.

Two-way digital trunks: Unlike existing PCM trunks, in PRI, all the channels are digital and two-way, enabling dynamic seizure of the trunks according to load times (without need for any change in the public switch), a feature that makes it possible to reduce the number of trunks and enables optimum usage at all times.
Fast clearing of trunks: When a trunk identifies a cause that prevents call setup (engaged signal, blocked trunks, etc.) it immediately frees itself to respond to another request for call setup. The release immediate, even if the subscriber does not hang up immediately (while sending a local busy signal by the private switchboard).
Priority call setup: Setting up a call in this manner usually occurs when the requested channel is not available. The network offers an alternate channel so that the outgoing call will be transferred to the alternate channel on the same beam, in a way that increases the chances for rapid call setup, and increasing the number of calls that are successfully completed. Setting up a call in this manner is transparent to the user and is carried out while ensuring that there is no circumvention of dialing restrictions.
Optimum usage of the channels: This significant advantage is achieved by combining the advantages described above (two-way digital channels, rapid trunk clearance and priority call setup), together with rapid call setup and efficient redial. This combination enables better utilization of the trunk, which is immediately available for many more calls, and is added to the two-way feature of the trunks, so that together, they contribute to the correct and optimal usage of the channels according to load times.
Caller's number to and from the network: PRI enables identification and display of the number of the subscriber calling from the network on the telephone screen, as well as on the call record machine. In addition, the number of the subscriber calling the network from the private switchboard is sent; the number can be the organization’s lead number (in internal direct dialing) or the subscriber's direct number, unlike the existing situation, where the subscriber's direct number cannot be sent to the network. At this stage, this feature depends on the type of public switchboard to which the customer is connected.


Voice over IP

VoIP (voice over IP) a set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets instead of using the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Ne big advantage of VoIP and Internet telephony is that it avoids tolls charged by traditional telephone service.

VoIP is derived from the VoIP Forum, an initiative by major equipment manufacturers, such as Cisco, VocalTec, 3Com, and Netspeak to promote the use of ITU-T H.323, which is the standard for sending voice (audio) and video using IP on the public Internet and within an intranet. The Forum also promotes the user of directory service standards so that users can find other users and the use of touch-tone signals for automatic call distribution and voice mail.

In addition to IP, VoIP utilizes real-time protocol (RTP) ensuring that packets get delivered in a timely way. Currently, using public networks, it is difficult to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS). Better service is possible with private networks managed by an enterprise or by an Internet telephony service provider (ITSP).

A technique used, to help ensure faster packet delivery is to use ping to contact all possible network gateway computers that have access to the public network and choose the fastest path before establishing a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) sockets connection with the other end.

To use VoIP, an enterprise places a "VoIP device" at a gateway. The gateway receives packetized voice transmissions from internal users and then routes them to other segments of its intranet (LAN or WAN) or, using a T-carrier system or E-carrier interface, sends them over the public switched telephone network.

Hosted VoIP

A voice over Internet (VoIP) service that is provided by a third party for businesses with a small to medium number of phone extensions. All calls are transported over the Internet, and telephone functions such as voicemail, call routing and call forwarding are performed on the provider's computers. Administration is handled via a Web interface.

Calls can be made and received using regular phones with adapters, IP phones or computers. A hosted VoIP service provides a "virtual IP PBX" for an organization without requiring a physical PBX.

SATELLITE SERVICES - HUGHES.NET

Put the power of broadband to work for your business.
With HughesNet®, your company can now have business-grade broadband Internet access at speeds comparable to DSL and cable, wherever you do business. Or secure networking between your locations with an affordable private network or VPN. Hughes offers a full suite of business-class solutions tailored for your company’s needs.

Connect to the future
We’re unlocking the value of broadband and opening up new possibilities for all our customers—helping them to achieve more.
 
For over 30 years, HUGHES has delivered satellite products and services around the world, with more than 1.5 million systems ordered or shipped to customers in over 100 countries. Hughes pioneered the development of high-speed satellite Internet services, which it markets globally under the HughesNet® brand.

HughesNet services are sold directly throughout North America, Brazil, Europe, and India, where Hughes owns and operates the network infrastructure. In other regions of the world, Hughes products and services are available from a growing family of authorized service providers and resellers.

Headquartered in Germantown, Maryland, Hughes has sales and support offices worldwide. Hughes is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hughes Communications, Inc. (NASDAQ:HUGH).
Customer Support and Service

Hughes offers complete turnkey solutions, including program management, installation, maintenance and support—for professional and rapid deployment anywhere, worldwide. At our Network Operations Centers, experienced engineers monitor customer networks 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. This is backed by an extensive field operations organization that provides reliable, responsive service to all our customers.

Commitment to Quality


At Hughes, quality is our first concern. We make it our mission to:

    * Set the standard for excellence in our industry
    * Earn the respect of our customers and suppliers throughout the world
    * Satisfy customers by meeting their needs and exceeding their expectations
    * Deliver error-free, competitive products on time and services second to none
    * Ensure that every job is done right the first time, every time

With Hughes, more and more customers around the world are reaping the powerful benefits of broadband.




Wireless Services

Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications where electromagnetic waves, instead of a physical wire, carry the signal over some, or all of the communication path.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) are communication protocols that standardize the way wireless devices, such as cell phones and radio transceivers, are used for Internet access, including e-mail, the Web, newsgroups, and instant messaging. While Internet access has been possible in the past, different manufacturers have used different technologies. In the future, devices and service systems that use WAP will be able to interoperate.

WAP layers are:
* Wireless Application Environment (WAE)
* Wireless Session Layer (WSL)
* Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
* Wireless Transport Layer (WTP)

The WAP was conceived by four companies: Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Unwired Planet (now Phone.com). The Wireless Markup Language (WML) is used to create pages that can be delivered using WAP. Besides WAP, There are other industry standards, including i-Mode; the world's first "smart phone" for Web browsing, (providing color & Video) introduced first in Japan.

Wireless categories:

Fixed: wireless devices or systems in homes and offices, and in particular; equipment connected to the Internet via modems

Mobile: wireless devices or systems aboard moving vehicles;

Portable: autonomous, battery-powered wireless devices or systems outside the office, home, or vehicle; such as; handheld cell phones and PCS units

IR: devices that convey data via infrared radiation; employed in certain limited-range communications and control systems

History
The first wireless transmitters went on the air early in the 20th century using Morse code. Later, as modulation made it possible to transmit voices via wireless, the medium came to be called "radio." With the advent of television, fax, data communication, and the effective use of a larger portion of the spectrum, the term "wireless" has been resurrected.
Common examples of wireless equipment in use today include: Cell phones and pagers, Global Positioning System (GPS) Cordless computer peripherals, Cordless telephone sets, Home-entertainment-system control boxes, Remote garage-door openers, Two-way radios, Baby monitors, Satellite television, Wireless LANs or local area networks.

More specialized and exotic examples of wireless communications and control include:

• Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) --the de facto wireless telephone standard in Europe
• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) -- a packet-based wireless communication service that provides continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users
• Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) -- a faster version of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) wireless service
• Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) -- a broadband, packet-based system offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter    where they are located in the world.



 

BROADBAND INTERNET ACCESS

BROADBAND in telecom refers to a method of signaling; including or handling a wide range (or band) of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins.
Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth, the greater the ability to carry information. In radio, a  narrow-band signal will carry only Morse code; a broader band will carry speech; and a still broader band is necessary for music .

A "normal" TV antenna may be able to receive a certain range of channels. A "broadband" antenna will receivemany  more channels. In data communications, an analog modem will transmit a bandwidth of 56 kbps over a phone line. Over the same  line, ADSL technology can deliver bandwidth of several megabits per second, which is described as broadband (relative to a modem over a phone line, but much less than over a fiber optic circuit).

BROADBAND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

Broadband in data can refer to broadband networks or broadband Internet and may have the same meaning as above, so that data transmission over a fiber optic cable would be referred to as broadband as compared to a telephone modem operating at 56 kbps. A world-wide standard for what level of bandwidth and network speeds actually constitute Broadband has not been determined.

Broadband in data communications is  used in a more technical sense to refer to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission, regardless of data signaling rate. In network engineering, this term is used for methods where two or more signals share a medium.

DSL BROADBAND

The various forms of digital subscriber line (DSL) services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over a high-bandwidth channel (located above the baseband voice channel on a single pair of wires).[2]
[edit] In Ethernet

A baseband transmission sends one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth, as in 100BASE-T Ethernet. Ethernet, however, is the common interface to broadband modems such as DSL data links, and has a high data rate itself, so is sometimes referred to as broadband. Ethernet provided over cable modem is a common alternative to DSL.



T1 Connection – T1 Carrier

Existing frequency-division multiplexing carrier systems worked well for connections between distant cities, but required expensive modulators, demodulators and filters for every voice channel. For connections within metropolitan areas, Bell Labs in the late 1950s sought cheaper terminal equipment. Pulse-code modulation allowed sharing a coder and decoder among several voice trunks, so this method was chosen for the T1 system introduced into local use in 1961. In later decades, the cost of digital electronics declined to the point that an individual codec per voice channel became commonplace, but by then the other advantages of digital transmission had become entrenched.

The most common legacy of this system is the line rate speeds. “T1? now means any data circuit that runs at the original 1.544 Mbit/s line rate. Originally the T1 format carried 24 pulse-code modulated, time-division multiplexed speech signals each encoded in 64 kbit/s streams, leaving 8 kbit/s of framing information which facilitates the synchronization and demultiplexing at the receiver. T2 and T3 circuit channels carry multiple T1 channels multiplexed, resulting in transmission rates of 6.312 and 44.736 Mbit/s, respectively.

Supposedly, the 1.544 Mbit/s rate was chosen because tests done by AT&T Long Lines in Chicago were conducted underground. To accommodate loading coils, cable vault manholes were physically 2000 meter (6,600 ft) apart, and so the optimum bit rate was chosen empirically — the capacity was increased until the failure rate was unacceptable, then reduced to leave a margin. Companding allowed acceptable audio performance with only seven bits per PCM sample in this original T1/D1 system. The later D3 and D4 channel banks had an extended frame format, allowing eight bits per sample, reduced to seven every sixth sample or frame when one bit was “robbed” for signaling the state of the channel. The standard does not allow an all zero sample which would produce a long string of binary zeros and cause the repeaters to lose bit sync. However, when carrying data (Switched 56) there could be long strings of zeroes, so one bit per sample is set to “1? (jam bit 7) leaving 7 bits x 8,000 frames per second for data.

A more common understanding of how the rate of 1.544 Mbit/s was achieved is as follows. (This explanation glosses over T1 voice communications, and deals mainly with the numbers involved.) Given that the highest voice frequency which the telephone system transmits is 4,000 Hz, the required digital sampling rate is 8,000 Hz (see Nyquist rate). Since each T1 frame contains 1 byte of voice data for each of the 24 channels, that system needs then 8,000 frames per second to maintain those 24 simultaneous voice channels. Because each frame of a T1 is 193 bits in length (24 channels X 8 bits per channel + 1 framing bit = 193 bits), 8,000 frames per second is multiplied by 193 bits to yield a transfer rate of 1.544 Mbit/s (8,000 X 193 = 1,544,000).

Initially, T1 used Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) to reduce frequency bandwidth and eliminate the DC component of the signal. Later B8ZS became common practice. For AMI, each mark pulse had the opposite polarity of the previous one and each space was at a level of zero, resulting in a three level signal which however only carried binary data. Similar British 23 channel systems at 1.536 Mbaud in the 1970s were equipped with ternary signal repeaters, in anticipation of using a 3B2T or 4B3T code to increase the number of voice channels in future, but in the 1980s the systems were merely replaced with European standard ones. American T-carriers could only work in AMI or B8ZS mode.

The AMI or B8ZS signal allowed a simple error rate measurement. The D bank in the central office could detect a bit with the wrong polarity, or “bipolarity violation” and sound an alarm. Later systems could count the number of violations and reframes and otherwise measure signal quality and allow a more sophisticated alarm indication signal system.

The decision to use a 193-bit frame was made in 1958, during the early stages of T1 system design. To allow for the identification of information bits within a frame, two alternatives were considered. Assign (a) just one extra bit, or (b) additional 8 bits per frame. The 8-bit choice is cleaner, resulting in a 200-bit frame, 25 8-bit

channels, of which 24 are traffic and 1 8-bit channel available for operations, administration, and maintenance (OA&M). AT&T chose the single bit per frame not to reduce the required bit rate (1.544 vs 1.6 Mbit/s), but because AT&T Marketing worried that “if 8 bits were chosen for OA&M function, someone would then try to sell this as a voice channel and you wind up with nothing.”

Soon after commercial success of T1 in 1962, the T1 engineering team realized the mistake of having only one bit to serve the increasing demand for housekeeping functions. They petitioned AT&T management to change to 8-bit framing. This was flatly turned down because it would make installed systems obsolete.

Having this hindsight, some ten years later, CEPT chose 8 bits for framing the European E1.

Higher T

In the late 1960s and early 1970s Bell Labs developed higher rate systems. T-1C with a more sophisticated modulation scheme carried 3 Mbit/s, on those balanced pair cables that could support it. T-2 carried 6.312 Mbit/s, requiring a special low-capacitance cable with foam insulation. This was standard for Picturephone. T 4 and T-5 used coaxial cables, similar to the old L-carriers used by AT&T Long Lines. TD microwave radio relay systems were also fitted with high rate modems to allow them to carry a DS1 signal in a portion of their FM spectrum that had too poor quality for voice service. Later they carried DS3 and DS4 signals. Later optical fiber, typically using SONET transmission scheme, overtook them.

Digital Signal

DS1 signals are interconnected typically at Central Office locations at a common metallic cross-connect point known as a DSX-1. A DS1 signal at a DSX-1 is measured typically at 6 Volts Peak-to-peak (0dBdsx signal level at 772 kHz Nyquist) at plus or minus 1.2 volts to permit easy interconnection of DS1 equipment NCI Code=04DS9/ /). When a DS1 is transported over metallic outside plant cable, the signal travels over conditioned cable pairs known as a T1 span. A T1 span can have up to -130 Volts of DC power superimposed on the associated four wire cable pairs to line or “Span” power line repeaters, and T1 NIU’s (T1 Smartjacks). T1 span repeaters are typically engineered up to 6,000 feet apart, depending on cable gauge, and at no more than 36 dB of loss before requiring a repeated span. There can be no cable bridge taps across any pairs.

T1 copper spans are being replaced by optical transport systems, but if a copper (Metallic) span is used, the T1 is typically carried over an HDSL encoded copper line. Four wire HDSL does not require as many repeaters as conventional T1 spans. Newer two wire HDSL (HDSL-2) equipment transports a full 1.54400 Mbit/s T1 over a single copper wire pair up to approximately twelve thousand (12,000) feet (3.5 km), if all 24 gauge cable is used. HDSL-2 does not employ repeaters as does conventional four wire HDSL, or newer HDSL-4 systems.

One advantage of HDSL is its ability to operate with a limited number of bridge taps, with no tap being closer than 500 feet from any HDSL transceiver. Both two or four wire HDSL equipment transmits and receives over the same cable wire pair, as compared to conventional T1 service that utilizes individual cable pairs for transitor receive.

DS3 signals are rare except within buildings, where they are used for interconnections and as an intermediate step before being muxed onto a SONET circuit. This is because a T3 circuit can only go about 600 feet (180m) between repeaters. A customer who orders a DS3 usually receives a SONET circuit run into the building and a multiplexer mounted in a utility box. The DS3 is delivered in its familiar form, two coax cables (1 for send and 1 for receive) with BNC connectors on the end

WiMAX

Definition
WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. The term WiMAX is the commercial name for the 802.16e-2005 protocol established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). WiMAX uses a modulation technique called Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), which was first developed for high frequency military communications systems during the 1950s. The name was assigned by the WiMAX Forum, which describes WiMAX as "a standards -based technology enabling the delivery of last-mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL."

802.11 WiFi Primer
WiFi is often confused with WiMAX. Unlike WiMAX, WiFi (802. 1 1) is comprised of three versions known as 802. 1 la, 802.11b, and 802.1Ig. The first version, 802.11a, operates on the 5GHz band and is typically used to install longer range connections because the signal suffers less interference. The other versions, 802.11b and 802.1Ig, operate on the 2.4GHz band and suffer interference from other household devices such as cordless phones and microwave ovens. These later "b" and "g" versions are the common variety that you might purchase at a retail store and plug into your home network. The 802 . 1 Ig version has the longest distance and uses OFDM technology similar to WiMAX. An additional version, 802.1In, will offer even greater distances and speeds, but ratification by the IEEE has been delayed to late 2008.

802.16 WiMAX Primer

As mentioned earlier, the WiMAX standard is based on the 802.16e-2005 protocol. In short, think of WiMAX as "WiFi on steroids" due to its increased coverage area over WiFi and low deployment costs compared to 3G networks. By comparison, a typical WiFi router can blanket a small house with wireless coverage while a WiMAX transmitter can potentially blanket an entire city (more than 20 miles) with broadband coverage.

Deploying Wireless Networks

Planning wireless networks is an art and a science. All wireless technologies are based on simple principles such as frequency modulation (think AM vs. FM radio), power (more power equals more distance), terrain (line of site vs. buildings), availability of quality frequencies (interference vs. access), and security (open vs. closed). The successful deployment of new wireless networks must strike a careful balance of technology (WiMAX), suitable power output, available frequencies, and careful placement of the transmitters in order to maximize coverage and quality, yet minimize costs.

Corporate Stakeholders
As WiMAX technology is adopted in the global marketplace, it is important to understand that there are major corporate stakeholders that want this technology to succeed. Nobody cares more about the success of WiMAX than Intel, which hopes to create unlimited demand and new markets for its embedded wireless chips within the new WiMAX "ecosystem." It is a leader in the WiMAX Forum, which is comprised of 420 members including chip makers, hardware manufacturers, network operators, and service providers. The organization's purpose is to "certify and promote the compatibility and interoperability of broadband wireless products based upon the harmonized IEEE 802.16/ETSI HiperMAN (High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network) standard."

Commercialization
Standardization of the 802.16e will ensure interoperability while increasing competition among hardware manufacturers and driving down hardware prices for the consumer. As WiMAX is adopted on a global scale, competition is expected to rise, which will cause hardware prices to fall and exacerbate demand.

Timeline
Global momentum for WiMAX is notably strong and growing. In the United States, Clearwire launched in 2003 and now operates in 39 domestic markets and four international markets, offering 1 .5Mbps download and up to 256Kbps upload speeds. Last fall, Sprint Nextel also announced that it plans to develop and deploy the first 4G nationwide broadband mobile network based on Mobile WiMAX. The infrastructure costs will be $1 billion in 2007 and $1 .5-$2 billion in 2008.

Most recently, Intel announced that it will begin to provide WiMAX cards for notebooks during 2008. More than 20 WiMAX deployments are under development internationally as well.

WiMAX Characteristics

RANGE

WiMAX offers maximum data transfer rates of 50Mbps, offering sustained user data rates of 0.5-2Mbps, allowing for simultaneous transfer of data (including high definition imagery), voice over IP (VoIP), and streaming video. This technology also provides effective services at distances of three to five miles for mobile users (without a direct line of sight). A distance of 20 miles or more is expected for lineof-sight connections.

SPEED
Data-transmission speed is subject to many factors including bandwidth, number of other users, distance from base station, and network configuration. The WiMAX Forum suggests "working" peak data rates of up to 15Mbps in 5MHz are achievable.

Frequency Considerations

Much debate is warranted on how governments allocate "airwaves" or frequency spectrum, and unfortunately, the topic is beyond the scope of this article, but the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has identified the 2.3, 2.5, and 3.5GHz bands for international broadband wireless access. Additionally, the 5.8GHz band is also often considered for WiMAX use, but normally on an unlicensed basis, which often translates into interference from other devices. Nevertheless, since 70% of the globally issued WiMAX licenses are for the 3.5MHz spectrum, and the United States is backing 2.5MHz services, these bands are likely to see the greatest initial benefits in scale.

WiMAX Positioning

In the United States, WiMAX is likely to enjoy greater frequency utilization and lower royalty overheads as compared to 3G networks. As a result, WiMAX is able to offer less expensive deployments and lower voice and data prices for the consumer. In short, WiMAX is likely to provide elements of converged networks (voice, data, IPTV) while bridging the gap between broadband wired networks (fiber, cable, DSL) and costly 3G networks (requiring more network elements). In the United States, WiMAX services will compete most directly with 3G services due to their favorable price-performance ratio, and with DSL or cable networks where the wired infrastructure is limited due to terrain (rural or isolated areas).

Applications

Imagine if everyone had an unlimited data package on their PDA and the speed is limited to 512Kbps to 1 .5Mbps. Some users pay per megabyte and others will pay a flat fee. What applications may develop and how might they impact streaming media? The list below is intended to offer some possibilities. Many of these applications were used for military purposes as well as some social purposes in Iraq. Add some imagination and you'll see that the possibilities are endless.

VOIP AND RADIO
Initially, fixed VoIP services are likely to be available in urban areas . WiMAXs ability to accomplish handoff and low latency, as well as guarantee service quality via traffic prioritization suggests it meets all the requirements for a wireless voice network. Versatile handsets are likely to route traffic over WiFi, WiMAX, or cellular networks based on availability.

This also means that WiMAX can be used to stream radio or directions to a device enabled with Mobile WiMAX.

IPTV
WiMAX lends itself well to the delivery of multimedia content. Video clips can be delivered to mobile handsets, and files can be exchanged in mobile peer-to-peer forums.

VIDEO TELECONFERENCING
Video teleconferencing and "personal broadcasting" are now a possibility with broadband point-to-point connections that bypass internet congestion.

DISPLAYS

Visual displays (movie trailers or product demonstrations) can be modified citywide in real time to capture the imagination of an audience of one or one hundred viewers.

INTERACTIVITY

Broadband upload capability now means that users can contribute to communities in new ways using video, photography, and voice. Devices suchas phones, cameras, and PDAs can share content in real time.

SOCIAL NETWORKING
By combining GPS and WiMAX devices, new applications can be developed to derive value from geographical marketing, predictable behaviors, and community interests.

PUBLIC WORKS
Aerial video surveillance is now a reality as public officials can monitor events using unmanned airplanes and a network of wireless video cameras delivering realtime video to a control station several miles away.

SENSOR NETWORKS
A sensor network is a network of devices (with built-in detection tools) that can exchange information, and gain situational awareness of other nodes in the network in order to act intelligently and collaboratively. Sensor networks offer valuable transportation, marketing, and security applications.

EVENT-BASED MEDIA

New media platforms can be used to capture and share community broadcast content for a given event, such as a sporting event, concert, or graduation.

Conclusion
Some critics may say that WiMAX is still unproven on a wide scale, but the trends toward commercialization - global adoption, low hardware prices, large corporate backing, and favorable price-performance ratio - are all evident. I believe it will be widely adopted where it is needed most - in developing areas lacking a reliable copper infrastructure.

It will definitely have a direct impact on streaming media and the development of applications that corporations, communities, and individuals will use to deliver information, entertainment, and advertising in the future.

One of the few benefits of being part of the military conflict in Iraq is the opportunity to test and evaluate new technologies. In 2005,Wireless broadband networks was deployed  utilizing technology similar to "Mobile WiMAX" in and around the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr. These networks offered fast installation and a robust communications platform for voice, data, and video applications in an environment  and terrain not suited for wired networks.

Historically, defense technology that has been transferred to the civilian sector has changed much of how the world works. The wireless broadband technology coming out of this war will continue that tradition and have a significant impact on many industries, including streaming media.

Michael Hallinan